Monthly Archives: February 2019

Keeping Fit Whilst Travelling

Many of us spend huge amounts of time staying in shape. We spend hours in the gym, running on the track or swimming in pools. Yet when we go on a much needed holiday all this falls to pieces, and most people do nothing to stay in shape – this will undo all your hard work, especially if you are embarking on a long trip.

You need to be proactive to prevent this from happening while you are travelling. The easiest way to do this is by going for regular runs – this works particularly well if you are at a beach-side spot as there’s nothing quite as serene as a gentle run down the beach. This is best done in the evening as otherwise you will be tortured by the heat and the crowds will get in the way. You can also keep your eyes peeled for gyms in your hotel or resort – many people are similarly focused on staying in shape and hoteliers have responded by building simple yet effective fitness facilities.

Not all exercise needs to be quite as intensive as running and you can stay in shape just by being generally active. This involves doing lots of walking, swimming and other gentle activity – take a walk in the evening to see the sights and you can work off your big dinner. This is good exercise but also very pleasant as it will encourage you to explore your chosen destination, rather than lazily sitting in the shade all day.

The final approach is to treat holidays as a chance to get in shape – many people do this these days as they set aside a week in a spot perfect for exercise. A great option is to go to a yoga camp which will teach you this great activity in a peaceful and secure environment. You can also embark on cycling trips, sailing holidays, equine adventures and all manner of other holidays – these schemes are a great way to experience something new and jump start a new regime.

Staying in shape is incredibly important as it is crucial for a healthy lifestyle. This means ensuring that you stay active on your trips abroad – whether your heading up to Lapland or going on a cheap Ibiza holiday there’s no excuse not to stay in shape. Best of all, activity can actually be a really rewarding part of travel and you can very easily make it fun. The highlight of your next holiday might be the most active thing you do – after all, nothing gets the heart pumping like a little exercise.

Teaching English and Travelling in Asia

Teaching English has evolved to become one of the most popular professions in the world. In this age of globalization, communication has become easy between different parts of the world. Technological advancements like the internet has further facilitated this process. The boundaries of mankind have thus, expanded and in order to excel or further one’s social, economic, educational or professional affairs, the need to reach out beyond the geographical territories of one’s country has become essential. In such an age, English has risen as the global language and serves as the primary medium in which people of different nationalities and mother-tongues communicate.

This phenomenon has obviously given rise to a huge English teaching job market all over the world. A larger number of people are relocating and applying for teaching English jobs abroad so that they can visit and explore exotic places all over the world. Teaching English jobs abroad provide an entry to different countries in the world, which is otherwise a little difficult to get and also provides the necessary financial support. Taking up teaching English jobs abroad provide a fantastic opportunity to learn about different societies, cultures, religions and people. It is an enriching experience to interact with the locals on a personal basis and get a first hand experience of a different world.

Those interested in taking up TEFL (Teaching English as Foreign Language) jobs abroad would find it beneficial to research on available teaching jobs in Asia. Since Asia is essentially a non-English speaking continent, English teaching jobs Asia are plenty in number. Moreover, Asia hosts some of the most developing countries like China, Thailand and Korea. These countries have been doing extremely well in the industrial fields and have carved out for themselves an important place in the world economic structure. But all these countries are essentially non-English speaking nations and they are quick to realize that their growth can be stunted if they don’t educate themselves in English language and reach out further in the world. Hence, they hire trained non-native as well as native English teachers.

English teaching jobs in Asia are available in schools, colleges, educational institutes, language schools and corporations. English teaching jobs in Asian countries like the Middle East come with the highest remuneration package in the world and are extremely lucrative.

TEFL jobs abroad are in abundance and are fairly easy to get. One must come from a sound educational background and must be fluent in English and completed a certified TEFL or TESOL course. TEFL jobs abroad are a particular fascination with people, who have a penchant for traveling. Asia plays the home for many TEFL teachers because of the abundance of teaching jobs here as well as the fact that Asia hosts some of the most picturesque countries in the world. Traveling in Asia is not an extremely expensive affair and a teacher’s remuneration is enough to support it. In addition to that, Asian countries like China are multi-cultural countries with ancient history and therefore, a major tourist location.

An Analysis of Anita Desais The Accompanist

An Analysis of Anita Desai’s -The Accompanist’ BY DR. RAM SHARMA SENIOR LECTURER IN ENGLISH J.V.P.G COLLEGE, BARAUT, BAGHPAT, U.P. AND Dr.Anshu Bhardwaj(Sharma) Senior Lecturer in English Depts. Arya College of Engineering & Information Technology SP-42,RIICO Industrial Area Kukas ,Jaipur

Anita Desai, short listed three times for the Booker Prize and honoured by the Padam Shri for her literary forte, is one of the literary luminaries of the contemporary Indian fiction writing in English and a prolific post colonial writer who like Virginia Woolf deals with the psychology of mind and goes deep into the heart of her characters to expose their inner feelings and dig out the hidden questions that spring at the core of their heart and ,thus, she appears travelling with the modernist sensibilities of T.S. Eliot and Faulkner. The author of the highly acclaimed novel -Fire On The Mountain’ and six other novels, has shown her craftsmanship even in the shorter fiction i.e., short stories rather than her novels. It is true that she finds the short story form -much less satisfying-1 than the novel ,yet she keeps on writing story as she started writing it -as early as her college days.-2 In her short stories her style shows to even more advantage than in her novels. Her short stories are witty, evocative, tender and perceptive and perfect in revealing her skill and dexterity in handling this genre. Not only her novels but her short stories also are the great exposure of her psychological perspect.

Desai’s -The Accompanist’, an extract of -Games At Twlight’ (1978) delineates the emotional state of a tanpura player who, in this story, proves a true shishy and a true accompanist and is known as Bhaiya or the accompanist. The story is woven in the thread of true human relationship between ustad Rahim Khan,a former classical musician and Bhaiya ,the tanpura player who accompanies him in his performance having the quality of love and devotion.

Ajit and Bhola ,Bhaiya’s childhood friends appear in the story as Mephistophilis in Marlowe’s -Dr. Faustus’, whose business is to corrupt ,mislead and caution and dissuades Dr .Faustus from his right path. They visited the accompanist almost two decades and provoked him to come out of the shadows of his master Rahim khan and create his own identity by being a soloist. They stated:

You even know how to play the sarod and the veena. You could be a great Ustad yourself ,with some practice-why do you spend your life sitting at the back stage and playing that idiotic Tanpura while someone else takes all the fame and all the money from you.

The oft-quoted lines explain that for years he was playing the tanpura for the ustad Rahim Khan but did not get any recognition. The attention was grabbed by the ustad and all these years Bhaiya was hidden behind him on the stage without any notice of his presence. In view of his friends he must have a life of obscurity and establish himself as a full fledged musician that will bring to him more fame and more money than the few pennies given by the ustad for playing the tanpura. These suggestions went unheared and the accompanist bridled the horses (the senses).Desai’s protagonists are not as weak as Marlowe’s who come under the influence of corrupted people like Mephistophilis .Desai’s accompanist knows the art of satisfaction within his limited means.(Contentment is happiness.) His friends enticed the accompanist for coming out of his ustad’s company and he should establish himself as an independent musician of a more worthy instrument than the tanpura but he realized the great glory of his ustad’s company and got spiritual wealth through this company. He remarks, -When I first met my Ustad,I was a boy of fifteen-a stupid, backward boy as my father had often told me I was.- At his father’s instruction he delivered the tanpura to ustad Rahim Khan. Delivering it to ustad he -saw greatness in his face, the calm and wisdom and kindness of a true leader- and immediately intented to deliver his whole life into his hands along with the tanpura. Later on the words -Play for me- uttered by the ustad made him stunned and brought changes in his life. In fact, these words were new-life giver to him as they created him, created his life, gave it form and distinction and purpose. The accompanist adds, -It was the moment of my birth and he was both my father and my mother to me.-

We become the victims of desires of the senses. It is controlled by the tremendous will power or by following the suggestions of the supreme bliss which Dr.Faustus felt. We get the exposure of the mind of the speaker when he thinks two ways of taking action. First he would establish his own identity by ignoring ustad’s company as his childhood friends suggested. Second he would be his accompanist for ever.

In Anita Desai’s writings the inner climate, the climate of sensibility is more compelling than the visible action. As Iyengar puts it, -Her forte- is the exploration of sensibility-the particulary kind of modern Indian sensibility that is ill at ease among the barbarians and the philistines, the anarchists and amoralising.-3 In the present story the accompanist was persuaded by the senseless talks of his friends, Ajit and Bhola who were empty headed and leading him into it. In real sense the accompanist was not convinced with the ugly thoughts of his friends but still he was compelled to think whether he could really be a front-rank musician or a ustad himself. The lines reveal his inner conflict as –I thought, Are they right? or the sarod, or the veena? And become an ustad myself ?- He found himself in delimn and tries to analyse the situation. For this purpose he goes on thinking about the futility of the time he had spent with his ustad and states, -Now these boys who had heard me play in the dark hall of our house have been an ustad myself, sat in the centre of the stage, played for great audiences and been applauded for my performances. Were they right? Was this true? Had I wasted my life?- Then he finds the exposure of his mind after some soul-searching that he can never become -ustad’ in his own life. This idea is revealed in these lines, -Yes, anyone could play the tanpura for him, do what I do. But he did not take anyone else, he chose me. He gave me my destiny, my life,- and thus, the alchemic touch of the master turned the crude and base boy into a noble and gentle accompanist who now regards him as his God on earth and feels, -Does a mortal refuse God?-

Our mind has various waves of thoughts which sometimes deviate us from our right path and we begin to doubt on our doings and become sad as the accompanist appears whispering, -Had I wasted my life?- As the feelings of repentance enter the mind of the person, he mends his short comings, his mind becomes pure and purged and then he realizes extreme love. The accompanist confesses, -Only once I was shaken out my contentment, my complacency. I am ashamed to reveal it to you. It was so foolish of me .- Further he holds the view:

Ours is a word formed and defined and enclosed not so much by music, however, a by a human relationship on solid ground level-the relationship of love.

The idea discussed in the above line describes the relationship between the accompanist and the ustad. The accompanist feels that their relationship is not only due to the music they played together, instead it was due to story human ties. The relationship developed due to the inspiration and guidance he received from the ustad who had framed his destiny it was further strengthened due to his love and devotion to the man he admired the most in his life.

The best ingredients of Desai’s style in short stories are childhood memories and the haunting feelings surging out of a romantic heart. In view of Iyengar, -As we remain mesmorised by Anita Desai’s verbal artistry and her uncanny evocation of atmosphere ,her tale unfalteringly glides by and we force a rendition of the veil of the realm of personal experience and attain the desired finale of acceptance.-4

Childhood memories are also recollected by the accompanist when his trust was shaken out due to the provoking of his childhood friends. He cried continuously. Everything appeared to be unpleasant and evil and then he recollected the past incidents of his life when he was a vagarant or a vagabond who was without hope, without aim and without destination and was passing a meaningless life. He goes back to his childhood days and reminiscences how other things were of importance to him . Music was worshipped in his family. The central hall of his house was famous for the musical instruments made by both his father and his grand father . Cordantly and discordantly sound of his music could be heared. The accompanist himself had strong likeness for music and also started learning all ragas and raginis from his father ,Mishraji at the age of four . His father, a maker of musical instruments ,tasted his knowledge with rapid persistent questioning in his unmusical grating voice and frequently grabbed his ears and pulled it during his teaching. From such lessons he felt the need to escape and managed several times a day. He was habitual of playing gulli-danda and kho and marbles with mischievous boys of his mohalla.He was fond of watching movies of Nargis and Meena Kumari who were the Queens of heaven for him. In order to fulfill his desires he never hesitated in stealing the money from his mother or father.His mouth watered for -halwa- and -jalebis- made by his mother and used to steal his brother’s and sister’s share for which he was beaten and cursed by the whole family. It was the life which he was leading before joining the musical band of ustad Rahim Khan at the age of fifteen.He is thirty years old now and for fifteen years he has been serving his ustad being his true accompanist.

Desai’s -The Accompanist’ elaborates the beautiful relationship between Guru and Shishy and proves it more important than other relationships-mother and son, father and son, brother and sister, husband and wife etc. The accompanist has strong likeness for the sweets made by his mother instead of her. -How I loved my mother’s sweetmeats, too rather more.- What her picture he has in his life is clear in further statement, -I did the non-descript ,mumbling ,bald woman who made them.. She never came to life for me. She lived some obscure, indoor life, unhealthy and curtained, undemanding and uninviting.- He considers her as a wonderful cook. His father had been a hard taskmaster who would religiously wake up him in the early hours of morning and train him in music. He wanted his son to become a musician not an instrument maker. With this view he gave him lessons in playing the Tanpura, Harmonium, Sitar and the Tabla and taught him all ragas and raginis by testing his knowledge with persistent questioning. It was the time when he was crazy for cinemas and playing marbles and had not so much likening for music. But when he was caught in a situation , he stood up to it. When his brain was washed by his friends, he began to doubt his father and recalled him by saying, -My father had taught me to play all these instruments and disciplined me severely ,but he had never praised me or suggested I could become a front-rank musician. I had learnt to play instruments as the son of a carpenter—But I had practiced on these instruments and played the ragas he taught me to play without thinking of it as an art or of myself as an artist. Perhaps I was a stupid, backward boy .My father always said so.- Such attitude towards his father the accompanist has .Stealing the shares of his brother and sister proves him unkindly ,irresponsible ,unsociable and naughty boy. Now he is married and has become the man of the world but has no interest in his married life while in his childhood he was crazy for the street beauties and the cinema heroines and put himself in the place of their screen lovers. He considers that he married for his mother’s pleasure, -I even married. That is, my mother managed to marry me off to some neighbour;s daughter of whom she was fond. The girl lived with her. I seldom visited her. I can barely remember her name, her face.- Whenever he gets the chance to go home for a few days to rest, he desires of cutting short these holidays and returning to his house in the city to practice.

The love for music and ustad Rahim Khan changed everything in his life and he gave up all his childhood pleasures and pranks. -All fell away from me ,all disappeared in the shadows on the other side.- Ustad – took the place of – his – mother’ s sweet halwa ,the cinema heroines, the street beauties ,marbles and stolen money.- Ustad Rahim Khan’s company brought several changes in his life and gave birth to him as Bhaiya, the tanpura player. All his attractions regarding playing with the mischievous boys of mohalla and going to cinema disappeared. All his follies and stupidities or bad habits disappeared for ever .Music has taken their place and become the goal of his life.He is fully satisfied with this goal. Thus he devoted his whole life to ustad and became his true friend and accompanist because he was nothing. -It was Ustad Rahim Khan who saw me, hiding awkwardly in the shadows of an empty hall with a tanpura in my hands and called me to come to him and showed me what to do with my life. I owe everything to him, my very life to him.- Thus he decided to remain royal in the same position giving the ustad the base material on which he would compose his music.

The intimacy between the accompanist and his ustad could not be perceived or understood by his childhood friends and their act of provoking him against his ustad failed and cultivated in him a strong sense of commitment towards his ustad. Having the feelings of self-assured, poised and self-satisfed he hired a tonga and asked the driver to take him to his ustad, his creator. Only one thing was going in his heart.

I maintain I am his true accompanist, certainly his true friend.

The feelings of the accompanist to ustad Rahim Khan are expressed in the above line. He feels that he always plays the notes given by the ustad repeadly and he builds his music on the background provided by him. Thus he feels he is a true accompanist. Above all he never expects anything and never tries to compete in the performance with him. He never seeks the attention of the audience ,their attention is always on the ustad ,whenever his ustad suffers with the hacking cough in a concert ,he always asks the accompanist to prepare the opium to quieten it, these points make him a true friend as well.

Tha accompanist stands for pure love and selfless service. When the ustad asked him, -Do you play? – These words contain a sense of security and relief, love and affection which were absence in his life. As a matter of fact, love is above money, above all the material gains and achievements. About the power of love, Coleridge has rightly observed:

All thoughts ,all passions, all delights Whatever stire this mortal frame Are all but ministers of love And feed their sacred flame. 5 The accompanist keeps on showing his true love and service to the ustad without any wish for gaining anything in return. -We have traveled all over India and played in every city, at every season. It is his life and mine. We share this life, this music, this following. What else can these possibly be for me in this world?-

It is interesting to note that Desai has beautifully presented the inner conflicts of the accompanist and also his victory over them. In fact, she believes in dealing with the mind and the soul of a character ,his inner workings and hidden and silent thoughts rather than his outer appearances .Similiarly, -The Accompanist’ has a fine fusion of feelings and form and proves itself a great example of Desai’s art and craftsmanship since her main business as a fiction writer is to expose the truth. Thus the story accentuates the importance of selfless love, devotion, dedication and gratitude in human relationship.

Bridesmaid Dresses The No Fuss Guide To Crease-free Travelling

Congratulations! You’re going to be a bridesmaid! But what if your friend’s wedding is the other side of the country? Do bridesmaid dresses stand up well to travelling? Are there any things we should think about to keep them in tip-top condition? Read on to get some helpful travel advice:

The Material Makes A Difference

Some materials are more prone to creasing than others, and although you probably won’t choose bridesmaid dresses based upon this, it will be useful to have a ‘heads-up’ in advance. After all, if you know that your dress is likely to come out of your face looking like an octogenarian’s neck then you can be prepared with a clothing steamer, iron or press.

You’ll need to ask the store to give you some advice on caring for your dress when you buy it. They will advise you what to do based upon its material, then when you reach your destination you can seek out a dry cleaner, iron or steamer.

Fly Easy

In large countries like the USA it’s pretty common to have to fly to another city. Whilst a flight of a few hours won’t phase most travellers it might crease your bridesmaid dress like crazy, so you need to find out how to store your dress.

Many stores will provide you with a dress bag, which is a long flat bag that you put your dress inside and then fold over double. This will usually protect from some creasing. If you don’t have one then they can be bought very cheaply online.

If you can avoid it, don’t put your dress in your case in the hold. There are two reasons for this.

First, your bag might be lost leaving you without a dress for the wedding!

Second, it’s guaranteed to get creased.

Rather you should carry it on and put it in the overhead luggage bin.

Decrease Upon Arrival

You’ve finally got into the hotel and unpacked your dress…oh no! There’s a lot of creases!

This is normal as travelling won’t help dresses, but there are some easy DIY fixes that you can do in your hotel room.

You’ve heard of the old “hang clothes in the bathroom and let the steam from your shower iron them” trick, right? It really works! Hang your bridesmaid dress up in the bathroom and make sure that the room is filled with steam from a hot shower. This will take maybe fifteen to twenty minutes. You’ll then find that a lot of creases will just fall out.

If you can iron the dress then go ahead, as many hotels will provide you with and iron, or you can use the trouser press to strategically ‘iron’ your skirt by placing different parts inside until it’s all ironed.

Another option is to ask the hotel to dry clean the dress. This will return it to you in pristine, pressed condition; but of course you need to pay a little money.

Travelling To Lanzarote – Food And Drink Guide

Lanzarote has hundreds of bars and restaurants, ranging from family-friendly cafes, to Canarian seafood restaurants, to authentic Thai and Indian restaurants.

Lanzarote cuisine revolves around meat such as goat, chicken and beef, most commonly. However, seafood is also widespread – the coastal village of El Golfo is renowned for its fish restaurants. Vegetarian cuisine is largely restricted to European restaurants in the larger towns, but you’ll find tortillas and wrinkled potatoes – the island speciality – everywhere. The local wine, Malvasia, is extremely good, and widely served.

Many people book holidays to Lanzarote’s largest resort, Puerto del Carmen, because of its “Britishness.” This isn’t really the place to come for traditional tapas bars, although the Canarian restaurant of La Tegala is widely considered to be the best on the island. You’ll find some good British restaurants, as well as cosy coffee shops and karaoke pubs. Casa Siam, the island’s only Thai restaurant, serves authentic curries and locally caught fish.

The island’s most famous inhabitant was the artist Cesar Monrique and the El Diablo Restaurant, at Timanfaya National Park, was one of his designs, and serves barbeques over the vent of a volcano! Another great place to dine is the Manrique-designed Casa-Museo Al Campesino, in Mozaga. Serving traditional Canarian food and wine, it offers cool seating inside the huge volcanic cavern, called a Jameo. Jameos del Agua is a fascinating cavern complex where you can dine, drink and dance in “Flintstones” style surroundings.

Holidays to Lanzarote often start at the capital of Arricife, which has some of the best eateries on the island. Try the Castillo De San Jos for locally caught seafood, or the Caf La Terraza for a quick snack. The Fortress restaurant has lovely views in historic surroundings.

Wherever you go in Lanzarote, you will find the Teleclubs. Friendly bars catering mainly for locals, they serve authentic Canarian cuisine and local wines at very reasonable prices.

A Guide to Traveling London through Kings Cross Station

The adventurer who wants to learn the city by randomly coming across the interesting things may enjoy traveling from park to park, always great for people watching and discovering the wide variety of Londons inhabitants. Regents, Hyde, Green, and St. James Parks are the main ones, each with distinctive personalities.

The Tube itself is extremely interesting, and its worth reading the entertaining advertisements of the tube, listen to some talented and not-so-talented musicians, pick out who the tourists are and who the natives are the tube can be really enjoyable during your voyage. Take advantage of being in this unique London sub world! Kings Cross is also nearby to Leicester Square and Picadilly, both popular night out areas. Or try traveling round Circle line and seeing how many pubs you can manage to stop at after which, see if you manage to find your way back to Kings Cross on this concentric line! Kings Cross, recently made famous through Harry Potters platform 9 , is more than a fictitious train platform.

Its a station that literally will get you anywhere in London (and beyond) very conveniently. If youre visiting London to shop, to learn its culture, or just to explore it for face value, Kings Cross is the best starting and ending point. You will get to where you need to go quickly, and at the end of the long day, you wont have to wait long to be back at your London home, sweet home.

Heart Of Darkness – Narrative Ambiguity And Imperialist Anxieties

Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a novel preoccupied with the concept of ’empire’. It also has a rather problematic relationship with the realist aesthetic which was the predominant nineteenth-century literary mode. This article aims to place Conrad’s novel within an imperialist context, assessing some on the underlying fears, for example hidden facets from the individual psyche, which, to a varying degree, appear to have informed its narrative. The article also considers genre issues and narrative framework, revealing some from the literary influences and stylistic techniques which characterize the novel.

Perhaps one with the greatest changes to fiction from the late nineteenth-century was the emergence of narrative ambiguity. This is apparent in Heart of Darkness with the outcome of Marlow’s quest for Kurtz being anticlimactic and ambiguous.

In terms of genre, Conrad’s novel could be regarded as adopting particular Gothic techniques. Perhaps most notable of these being the exotic settings: the Congo and African jungle. Whereas inside late eighteenth-century, Southern Europe was regarded as an alien and exotic region by most English readers, by the following century, the nation’s literary gaze had shifted to Africa – the ‘dark continent’.

A superficial reading in the novel might regard it as belonging to the popular boy’s own adventures and imperialist tales with the author’s maritime experiences providing authentic narrative detail. Heart of Darkness could also be thought to possess a far more distant literary antecedent in that of your medieval quest-romance. The figure of Marlow travelling upriver in search of Kurtz echoes the tales of knights and their chivalrous adventures. Having said that where the heroes of quest-romances and adventure fiction return from their travels essentially unchanged, but having rescued and changed other people, in Heart of Darkness this pattern is reversed, thus indicating a far deeper psychological narrative.

The theme of transgression is apparent in Heart of Darkness, especially if we examine Conrad’s text in relation to the Faust legend. Kurtz would appear to have traded his ‘moral sanity’ in favour of power; on the other hand his renunciation of civilized codes of behaviour has subsequently led him to committing unspeakable atrocities.

A pervasive romantic theme while in the novel is that of your double, or doppelganger. Whereas quite a few novels with the late nineteenth-century utilized fantasy in their depiction of characters with dual personalities, like Stevenson’s Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), Conrad’s geographically remote setting allowed him to portray a character with antithetical tendencies but in an outwardly realist narrative. Kurtz’s behaviour is obviously incompatible with the restraints of European lifestyle, yet while in the prospect of an imperial adventure, he is able to discard his official identity and indulge his rebellious aspect. For that European colonial, transformation and transgression have been easily accommodated within the wilds in the ‘dark continent’ during the nineteenth-century. Even so it truly is critical to realise that Conrad doesn’t endorse this view, for his novel actually subverts the imperialist discourse of much adventure fiction of your day.

Kurtz could be considered a degenerated individual, as although he isn’t clinically insane, he would appear to become ‘morally insane’; as evinced by Marlow’s grisly encounter with the severed heads from the man’s victims, along with the reflection “They only showed that Mr Kurtz lacked restraint from the gratification of his several lusts, that there was something wanting in him – some small matter which, when the pressing need arose, could not be found under his magnificent eloquence” (III, p.164). When Marlow follows Kurtz ashore in order to avert the latter’s return to ‘his’ tribe, he realises that the object of his quest has managed to create a moral vacuum additional awful than any manifestation of evil, a vacuum where there can be no comparators, where nothing matters: “It echoed loudly within him for the reason that he was hollow at the core” (III, p.164-165). Kurtz’s dying utterance of “The horror. The horror” (III, p.178) is one from the novel’s great ambiguities because the reader is left unsure as to what the man is actually referring to.

One of Heart of Darkness’s most crucial elements is a tension between Marlow’s colonial experiences as well as linguistic and narrative forms in which they can be represented. The tale itself is framed as if it really is being told, as opposed to written, to a group of listeners within an outer frame, one of whom functions as a sort of secondary narrator. A major effect of this is to provide distance between Marlow and Conrad himself. Being an unusually brief narrative, Heart of Darkness also has something of your intensity and unity of effect associated with a brief story. The nature with the tale is profoundly complex, the prolonged overlapping between outer and inner narrator distinguishing the narrative from additional generic adventure tales, for example, you will find no clear signals as to where the frame ends and Marlow’s story actually begins. The reader needs to pay as much attention to the manner from the ‘telling’ as to the tale itself.

Heart of Darkness employs a richly orchestrated visual construction. Even the forest which flanks the Congo is not mere vegetation: it’s offered a face, lungs and thoughts: “vegetation rioted to the earth as well as big trees had been kings” (II, p.136), plus the river itself is likened to a snake that can ‘fascinate’ and ‘charm’ in true exotic fashion. This subtle anthropomorphism can be apparent while in the scenes with Kurtz, where the natives are described as “vanishing without any signs of perceptible movement or retreat, as if the forest that had ejected these beings so suddenly had drawn them in again because the breath is drawn in a long aspiration” (III, p.167).

You will find two sets of horrors which confront Marlow, the initial being his acceding to the greed in the company, the second being his acceding to the incomprehensible power of your wilderness, a power to which Kurtz has already succumbed. One in the several ways in which Conrad integrates these horrors is through the recurrent imagery of dark and light, black and white. The blank space to the map that so fascinated the child Marlow has changed into a ‘place of darkness’, and it will be this ‘darkness’ which now descends upon the adult Marlow and his audience at the novel’s end: “The offing was barred by a black bank of clouds, as well as the tranquil waterway leading to the uttermost ends on the earth flowed sombre under an overcast sky – seemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness” (III, p.187).

The formal construction and narrative content of Heart of Darkness is ultimately distanced from your realist aesthetic of much nineteenth-century literature. Even so, it will be important to acknowledge that the novel still draws on longstanding literary conventions and myths. Through the characters of Kurtz and Marlow, Heart of Darkness is consistently preoccupied with notions from the effect of alien and exotic environments on European explorers.